A Timeline

This timeline interweaves the histories of The Grove, HIV/AIDS in Colorado, and HIV/AIDS in the United States.

For further information on the U.S. History, consult our source at The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Global HIV/AIDS Timeline.

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2017 . MAY . 21

Friends of The Grove recognized five Coloradans who have devoted their lives and careers to the fight against HIV/AIDS. The event was being held in conjunction with International AIDS Candlelight Memorial Day. Bob Bongiovanni, Barb Cardell, Michael Dorosh, Hazel Ann Harris and Carol Lease were recognized for their groundbreaking leadership as advocates, service providers and champions for people affected by HIV/AIDS and those who care for them.

2017 . MAY . 13

Spring Clean-up. 7 volunteers.

2017 . APR . 22

First Spring Clean-up. 27 volunteers from Da Vita and Denver Parks and Recreation. Volunteers weeded the steps on the east side, collected leaves, cleared the cut brush on the west side slopes, and remove dead debris from the natural areas.

2016 . OCT . 30

Fall Clean-up. 12 volunteers along with the City and County of Denver Parks and Recreation employees cleaned up The Grove area. Volunteers weeded the steps on the east side, collected leaves, cleared the cut brush on the west side slopes, and remove dead debris from the natural areas.

2016 . MAY . 15

Rededication of The Grove, the Colorado AIDS Memorial. Follow this link for full details.

2015 . Q3

Finding from “Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment” (START) study released; show starting antiretroviral treatment early improves health outcomes for people with HIV.

2015 . Q1

Finding from Ipergay and PROUD studies show PrEP to be effective in reducing HIV incidence among gay men.

2014 . Q1

Major coverage reforms under the U.S. Affordable Care Act go into affect, impacting health coverage for many people with HIV in U.S.

2013 . Q4

U.S. Preventative Servies Task Force gives routine HIV screening an A grade, indicating “there is high certainty that the net benefit is substantial.”

2013 . Q1

WHO releases new guidelines recommending earlier us of antiretrovirals, calling for treatment to begin with CD4 cell count falls below 500 cells/mm3, a change from previous standard of 350 cells/mm3; also includes recommendation related to antiretroviral therapy for children under 5 with HIV, pregnant and breastfeeding women with HIV, and HIV-positive persons with uninfected sexual partners.

2012 . Q3

U.S. FDA approves the use of Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) for reducing risk of HIV infection in uninfected individuals at high risk, marking the first HIV treatment to be approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

2012 . Q2

U.S. FDA approves OraQuick In-Home Test, first rapid test using oral fluid that can be bought over-the-counter; results of which are obtained at home.

2012 . Q1

XIX International AIDS Conference held in Washington, D.C., marking first time conference held in U.S. since 1990.

2001 . Q3

U.S. Congress reinstates decades-long ban on federal funding for needle exchanges only two years after eliminating the same ban.

2001 . Q2

Obama Administration announces gaol of AIDS_free generation, highlighted in speeches by Secretary of State Clinton and President Obama.

2011 . JUN . 05

June 5 marks 30 years since first AIDS case reported.

2011 . Q1

Large multinational study of serodiscordant, mostly heterosexual, couples (HPTN 052) shows early treatment of HIV-infected person greatly reduces transmission to negative partner.

2010 . Q4

U.S. President Obama signs comprehensive health reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), into law, which provides new health insurance coverage opportunities for millions of individuals in U.S., including people with HIV. Provisions of law to be implemented in coming years.

2010. Q1

Large international clinical study (iPrEx) shows daily dose of combination antiretroviral pill reduced risk of acquiring HIV among men who have sex with men and transgendered women who have sex with men.

2009 . Q3

U.S. Congress eliminates long-standing statutory ban on use of federal function for needle exchanges in U.S., with caveats.

2009 . Q2

U.S. President Obama calls for first-ever National HIV/AIDS Strategy for U.S.

2009 . Q1

Obama Administration officially lifts HIV travel and immigration ban by removing final regulatory barriers to entry; to take effect in January 2010. Leads to announcement that International IDS Conference will return to U.S. for first time in more than 20 years, and be held in Washington, D.C., in 2012.

2008 . Q4

First National Gay Men’s HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in U.S.

2008 . Q3

U.S. CDC releases new HIV incidence estimates for U.S., showing that the U.S. epidemic is worse than previously thought.

2008 . Q1

U.S. Congress reauthorizes PEPFAR for an additional 5 years at up to $48 billion; the legislation ends the statutory HIV travel and immigration ban.

2006 . Q4

First National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in U.S.

2006 . Q3

First National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in US.

2006 . Q2

U.S. Congress reauthorizes Ryan White CARE Act for third time.

2006 . Q1

U.S. CDC releases revised HIV testing recommendations for health-care settings, recommending routine HIV screening for all adults, aged 13-64, and yearly screening for those at high risk.

2005 . Q3

First Indian drug manufacturer (Ranbaxy) gains U.S. FDA approval to produce generic antiretroviral for PEPFAR.

2004 . Q4

U.S. FDA approves OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test for use with oral fluid; oral fluid rapid test granted CLIA waiver.

2004 . Q3

U.S. HHS announces expedited review process by U.S. FDA for fixed does combination and co-packages products; to be used by the U.S. in purchasing medications under PEPFAR.

2003 . Q3

First National Latino AIDS Awareness Day in U.S.

2003 . Q1

President Bush announces President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), a five-year, $15 billon initiative to address HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria in hard hit countries.

2002 . Q3

U.S. FDA approves OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test; first rapid test to use finger prick. OraQuick granted Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) waiver in 2003, enabling test to be performed outside of laboratory, allowing more widespread use.

2002 . Q1

HIV is leading cause of death worldwide among those agent 15-59.

2001 . Q3

First National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in U.S.

2001 . Q2

Generic drug manufacturers offer to produce discounted, generic forms of the HIV/AIDS drugs; several major pharmaceutical manufacturers agree to offer further reduced drugs prices in developing countries.

2001 . Q2

June 5 marks 20 years since first AIDS case reported.

2000 . Q4

U.S. HHS approves first state 1115 Medicaid expansion waivers for low-income people with HIV in Maine, Massachusetts and District of Columbia; in 2001, Massachusetts becomes first state to enroll new clients.

2000 . Q3

U.S. CDC reports that among men who have sex with men in the U.S., African-American and Latino cases exceed those among whites.

2000 . Q3

U.S. Congress reauthorizes the Ryan White CARE Act for the second time.

2000 . AUG . 13

Dedication of The Grove, the Colorado AIDS Memorial.

2000 . Q2

U.S. President Clinton announces Millennium Vaccine Initiative, creating incentives for development and distribution of vaccines against HIV, TB, and malaria.

2000 . Q1

U.S. National Security Council and UN Security Council each declare HIV/AIDS a security threat.

1999 . Q1

U.S. Congress Hispanic Caucus, with the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute, convenes Congressional hearing on impact of HIV/AIDS on Latino community.

1998 . Q3

U.S. HHS Secretary Shalala determines needles exchange programs to be effective and do not encourage use of illegal drugs, but Clinton Administration does not lift ban on use of federal funds for such purposes.

1998 . Q3

U.S. Supreme Court, in Bragdon v. Abbott, rules that Americans with Disabilities Act covers those in earlier stages of HIV disease, not just AIDS.

1998 . Q2

Despite earlier optimism, several reports indicate growing signs of treatment failure and side effects from HAART.

1997 . Q4

U.S. Congress enacts FDA Modernization Act of 1997, codifying accelerated approval process and allowing dissemination of information about off-label uses of drugs.

1997. Q3

U.S. FDA approves Combivir, a tablet combining two ARV drugs, making it easier for people living with HIV to take medication.

1997 . Q2

U.S. President Clinton announces goal of finding an effective vaccine in 10 years and creation of Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center.

1997 . Q1

AIDS-related deaths in the U.S. decline by more than 40 percent compared to prior year, largely due to HAART.

1996 . Q4

U.S. Congress reauthorizes Ryan White CARE Act.

1996 . Q3

U.S. FDA approves first non-nuclease reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), nevirapine.

1996 . Q2

U.S. FDA approves viral load test, a new test that measures the level of HIV in the body. It also approved first HIV home testing and collection kit, and a HIV urine test.

1996 . Q1

HIV no longer leading cause of death for all Americans ages 25-44; remind leading cause of death for African-Americans in this age group.

1996 . Q1

Number of new AIDS cases diagnosed in the U.S. declines for first time in history of epidemic.

1996 . Q1

Time magazine names AIDS researcher Dr. David Ho as its “Man of the Year.”

1995 . Q3

First White House Conference on HIV/AIDS held.

1995 . Q2

U.S. President Clinton established Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS (PACHA).

1995 . Q2

First National HIV Testing Day held on June 27; created by the National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA).

1995 . Q1

First protease inhibitor, saquinavir, approved in record time by the U.S. FDA, using in a new era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

1995 . Q1

U.S. CDC issues first guidelines for prevention of opportunistic infections in person infected with HIV.

1994 . Q4

NIH issues guidelines requiring applicants for NIH grants to address “the appropriate inclusion of women and minorities in clinical research.”

1994 . Q3

U.S. FDA approves oral HIV test, first non-blood based antibody test for HIV.

1994 . Q2

U.S. Public Health Service recommends use of AZT by pregnant women to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV; based on “076” study showing up to 70% reduction in transmission.

1994 . Q1

AIDS becomes leading cause of death for all Americans ages 25 to 44; remains so through 1995.

1993 . Q4

Deaths include ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev, tennis star Arthur Ashe, and leading advocate for women with AIDS in prison Katrina Haslip.

1993 . Q4

“Philadelphia,” film starring Tom Hanks as a lawyer with AIDS, opens in theaters, becoming first major Hollywood movies on AIDS.

1993 . Q3

U.S. Congress enats NIH Revitalization Act, giving the OAR primary oversight of all NIH AIDS research; requires NIH and other research agencies to expand involvement of women and minorities in all research. President Clinton signs HIV immigration exclusion policy into law as part of the same law.

1993 . Q2

U.S. CDC expands case definition of AIDS to reflect fuller spectrum of the disease, including adding conditions specific to women and injection drug users.

1993 . Q1

U.S. President Clinton establishes White House Office of National AIDS Policy (ONAP).

1992 . Q3

U.S. FDA licenses first rapid HIV test, which provides results in a little as ten minutes.

1992 . Q2

AIDS becomes number one cause of death for U.S. men ages 25 to 44.

1991 . Q3

Red ribbon introduced as international symbol of AIDS awareness at Tony Awards by Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS and Visual AIDS.

1991 . Q2

U.S. CDC recommends restrictions on practice of HIV-positive health care workers; U.S. Congress enacts law requiring states to take similar action.

1990 . Q4

“Women, AIDS and Activism,” developed by ACT UP’s Women’s Caucus, published, becoming the first book at its kind.

1990 . Q3

U.S. FDA approves use of AZT for pediatric AIDS.

1990 . Q2

American with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) enacted by U.S Congress; prohibits discrimination against individual with disabilities, including people living with HIV/AIDS.

1990 . Q2

Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act of 1990 enacted by U.S. Congress. Provides federal funds for community-based care and treatment services; funded at $220.5 million in first year.

1990 . Q2

Ryan White dies at 18.

1989 . Q4

AIDS activists stage several major protests about AIDS drugs during year, including at the Golden Gate Bridge, the New York Stock Exchange, and U.S. headquarters of Burroughs Wellcome.

1989 . Q3

Head of NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Dr. Anthony Fauci, endorses parallel track policy, giving those that do not qualify for clinical trials access to experimental treatments.

1989 . Q2

U.S. CDC issues first guidelines for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), and AIDS-related opportunistic infection and major cause of morbidity and mortality for people with HIV.

1989 . Q1

U.S. Congress creates National Commission on AIDS.

1988 . Q4

First comprehensive needle exchange program (NEP) established in North American in Tacoma, Washington, New York City creates first government-funded NEP; San Francisco establishes what becomes largest NEP in the U.S.

1988 . Q3

ACT UP demonstrates at U.S. FDA headquarters in protest of slow pace of drug approval process.

1988 . Q3

U.S. Health Omnibus Programs Extensions (HOPE) Act of 1988 authorizes use of federal funds for HIV/AIDS prevention, education, and testing.

1988 . Q2

U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) establishes Office of AIDS Research (OAR) and AIDS Clinical Trails Group (ACTG).

1988 . Q2

World AIDS Day first declared by WHO on December 1.

1987 . Q4

National Black Leadership Commission on AIDS, National Minority AIDS Council, and National Task Force on AIDS Prevention form in the U.S.

1987 . Q4

“And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic,” a history of the epidemic’s early years by Randy Shilts, published.

1987 . Q4

AIDS Memorial Quilt displayed on the National Mall in Washington, DC, for the first time.

1987 . Q3

U.S. FDA sanctions first human testing of candidate vaccine against HIV.

1987 . Q3

U.S. Congress adopts Helms Amendment banning use of federal funds for AIDS education materials that “promote or encourage, directly or indirectly, homosexual activities,” often referred to as the “no promoto homo” policy.

1987 . Q2

U.S. FDA creates new class of experimental drugs called Treatment Investigational New Drugs (INDs), which accelerates drug approval by two to three years.

1987 . Q2

President Reagan makes first publish speech about AIDS; establishes Presidential Commission on HIB (Watkins Commission).

1987 . Q1

AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) established in New York in response to proposed cost of AZT; the price of AZT is subsequently lowered.

1987 . Q1

First antiretroviral (ARV) drug – zidovudine or AZT (a nucleoside analog) – approved by U.S. FDA.